If you have basic familiarity with contracts, you’ve likely heard the term “boilerplate,” which is often used to mean standard language that the contract writer uses in many of its contracts or even that you may find in contracts across the board. Of course, just because language might be “standard,” that does not mean that it is innocuous or that you can safely ignore it!
So-called boilerplate language, it it exists, is often found near the end of the contract. Some contracts stipulate that if a dispute arises from the contract the parties agree to submit the dispute to binding arbitration. While this clause may be brief and, coming at the end of a contract, may appear almost like an afterthought, it is important to understand that agreeing to arbitrate has very real consequences.
Arbitration clauses are most often seen by consumers in credit card agreements and service agreements with large companies (e.g., “Any dispute in connection with this Agreement shall be subject to binding arbitration in Chicago, Illinois”), but they are also sometimes poorly understood features of contracts between small businesses who somehow heard from an uncle that arbitration was easier or cheaper than going to court.
In November 2013, a long and expensive arbitration proceeding concerning a Gwinnett County software company came to a conclusion. The process took three (3) years and cost $3.5 million in legal fees in addition to approximately $150,000 in arbitration costs.
The victors, Kenneth Shumard and Kenneth Shumard Jr. won the right to control the use of medical billing software that is anticipated to be highly valuable. The Shumards also won $800,000 in attorneys’ fees. Initially, the Shumards sought a restraining order from the Gwinnett County Superior Court preventing their other partners from making certain use of the software. Judge Ronnie Batchelor referred the dispute to arbitration, because the partnership agreement between the Shumards and their partners required that disputes go to arbitration.
As such, the Shumards did not have the option to seek judicial process, but instead, were forced to go to arbitration.
Arbitration is conducted under its own standards and is a creature of state law. In some ways arbitration resembles court proceedings. For example, in the above-mentioned dispute, the arbitrator received briefs on the matter and received testimony from witnesses. The arbitrator then required post-trial briefs and issued a written decision.
In other ways, however, arbitration is an animal unto itself. Arbitrators are not bound the same rules as judges and their decisions are often final. Their decisions are not subject to normal appellate court review, and only subject to attack in specific instances, such as when the arbitrator is not impartial, failed to make a final determination of the issues, or manifestly disregarded the law. Basically, arbitration is like “private court.”
A court rarely finds that an arbitrator has committed such failings, and thus, it is best to plan on any arbitration award being the final word. Case in point, in the above-referenced dispute, the Shumards’ partners, who were unsuccessful in arbitration, went back to Gwinnett County Superior Court Judge Batchelor seeking to have the arbitration award vacated. Judge Batchelor denied those motions and confirmed the arbitration award.
In Georgia, Chapter 9 of Title 9 of Georgia Statutes sets out the standards for arbitration (the “Georgia Arbitration Code,” O.C.G.A. § 9-9-1 et seq.). In Georgia, the contract controls. If a contract that requires disputes be arbitrated is enforceable, the dispute cannot be heard by the courts and must be submitted to arbitration. The courts do have power, however, to determine whether the contract with the arbitration clause is valid, to compel arbitration, and to validate and enforce an arbitration award.
From partnership agreements and operating agreements to construction deals and a variety of other contracts, a seemingly innocuous arbitration clause can be but a brief paragraph nestled neatly in the final pages of the contract, but nonetheless has great importance. Before entering into a contract, seek the counsel of a contract attorney to ensure you understand the implications of every section of the agreement.